A bunion is the most common deformity of the great toe joint. Typically seen in middle-aged patients,the defirmity can also be seen in children. The deformity is most often inherited, however, injury, foot structure, and shoe type can contribute to the progression of the deformity. If the deformity is allowed to continue, there is a significant chance of arthritis in the great toe joint, as well as formation of other problems such as, hammertoes, corns and calluses.
Treatment can include shoe modifications, and physical therapy. The bunion deformity can be successfully corrected with a variety of different surgical procedures. The severity and type of deformity will determine the specific type of procedure, and appropriate post-operative care.
Calluses are the most common type of skin leision seen on the ball or planter aspect of the foot. They are usually caused by mechanical pressure or friction.
They are, however, many different types of skin problems that can be seen on the bottom of the foot. These can include warts, ulcers, infection, skin tumors, and other conditions that may require specialized treatment.
Diabetic Foot Care
Diabetes may cause changes to the foot that may lead to a number of complications. The best way to avoid possible complications is to keep your blood sugar levels under control. Be sure to follow your doctors guidelines for diet, exercise, and medication. And have your feet examined regularly. Early detection of potential problems will allow your doctor to treat them early. And this will help you stay on your feet.
One of the most common causes of pain in the ball of the foot, or cramping in the toes, is a pinched nerve that runs between the third and fourth toes. Irritation of this nerve can produce a permanent thickening or welling of the nerve which forms the Morton's Neuroma.
Morton's Neuroma can be treated with medication, mechanical supports, and injections. If the condition does not respond, then the neuroma may need to be removed.
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The foot and ankle can suffer many different types of injury during normal daily activity.
Common Injuries - falling down steps or in the yard, twisted ankle, slipping on a wet floor, falling from a ladder.
Sports Related Injuries - sliding into base, sprained ankle playing tennis, ruptured Achilles tendon from basketball injury.
A Sprain may not be just a minor injury. Any injury that produces pain, swelling or bruising should be examined or x-rayed to determine whether or not there is a serious injury.
Many foot FRACTURES, even broken toes, should be examined and treated to prevent problems from improper healing.
Some broken bones of the foot or ankle can be treated with splints or casts. Other more serious fractures may require surgery to put the bones back together and allow them to heal in a normal position to prevent future problems such as arthritis and disability.
Sensory Neuropathy is the deterioration of the nerves in the leg that detect sensations such as heat, cold, or pain. Damages resulting from sensory neuropathy is most often caused by repetitious injuries that can't be felt. Continually walking with pressure on one part of the foot, foreign objects in the shoe, tight fitting shoes, or walking barefoot may result in corns, calluses, and sores, leading to ulceration and infection.
Autonomic Neuropathy is deterioration of the nerves that regulate functions that occur without having to be controlled consciouly, like sweating. When the sweat glands stop performing properly, the result can be cracking, fissures, and ulcerationon the feet.
People with diabetes may have compromised immune systems. While this won't cause ulcers or sores on the foot, it increases the body's risk for developing various types of infections, such as bacterial and fungal infections. It also reduces the body's ability to heal.
Commonly called "athletes foot," tinea pedis usually appears in 1 or 2 forms - either in and around the toes, or over the entire sole of the foot. Symptoms of tinea pedis include scaling and itching, or, in some cases, blisters. It may mimic other conditions but diagnosis can be determined with a simple laboratory test.
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection under the toenail. It may cause nails to appear discolored - from patches of white to yello or even black. The nails may even become thick, brittle, and painful. The infection may spread if not trated effectively, potentially leading to more serious complications.
There are many types of deformities of the lesser toes. Treatment can include routine care of corns and calluses, padding, and leg splints. The deformity of the toe can usually be successfully corrected with a surgical procedure.
One of the most common foot conditions seen is the ingrown nail. The problem presents as a painful infected edge of the nail. The condition may be greated by the way the nail is trimmed, or may occur following injury or abnormal shoe pressure.
Treatment of an ingrown nail is usually uncomplicated, and may be permanently corrected if there is reoccurence after initial treatment.
One of the most common causes of foot pain is the heel spur.This condition is usually due to the limitation of ligaments or tendons that attach to the heel. Heel pain is usually treated successfuly with non-surgical methods, including medication, orthodic support, physical therapy, and injections. In those conditions where the pain does not respond, surgery can be an option.
Rheumatoid Arthritis can cause many severe crppling deformaties of the foot and toes. Patients may experience severe pain, and may be unable to wear shoes due to the severity of the deformaties. These severe problems can be treated with specially molded shoes and inserts, and in many instances can be surgically corrected.
In-Toeing / Out-Toeing
A common concern for many children is in-toeing. This condition may be totally normal for a child as the lower extremities changes and matures. In certain circumstances, this condition may be a sign of a significant problem, and may cause deformity or breakdown of the foot. In-toeing in your child should be evaluated and appropriate treatment initiated if a significant problem exists.
Out-toeing may be an indication of several problems, includig a position of the hip, the knee, and even a flat foot. The actual cause of out-toeing should be accurately diagnosed so that it can be adequately treated as the child grows.
In-toeing and out-toeing are rotational disorders of the lower extremity that can be successfully treated with exercise, splinting and shoe inserts.
High Arch" (cavus foot)
A high-arched foot may be a congenital or inherited foot deformity. The condition may be difficult to identify in younger children and may not be fully recognised untill the adult, in their 20's or 30's begins to have problems caused by foot deformity. A high arched foot maymay also be caused by an inherited muscle or nerve disease called CMT.
Many problems caused by a high arched foot include "weak" ankles, frequent ankle sprains, hammertoes, and calluses. Often these problems can be treated with mechanical supports or orthotics. More severe deformities of the high-arched foot can be surgically corrected.
"Low Arch - Flat Foot" (pes planus)
Flat feet may be normal feet, but some flat feet are NOT, and may lead to a wide variety of foot problems. Aching, fatigue, cramping, heel pain, arthritis, weakness, and disability are just a few syptoms that an abnormal lat foot may produce. Flat feet can lead to deformities of the toes, such as bunions, hammertoes,corns, and calluses.
Many of the symtoms of a flat foot can be controlled with an in-shoe device or orthotic. In more severe pediatric deformities, the normal arch of the foot can be restored with successful surgical repair. Many of the severe disabling flat foot deformites of the adult can also be successfully surgically treated.